Research

Country Leaders of Open Science
Country Leaders of Open Science 1024 682 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Open Science is an initiative that aims to make scientific research more transparent, accessible, and reproducible. It is based on the principles of open access, open data, open source, and open peer review. The goal of open science is to improve the quality and impact of scientific research, to accelerate scientific discovery, and to make science more relevant and useful to society.

Several countries around the world have recognized the potential of open science and have taken initiatives to promote it. These countries have implemented policies and strategies that support open science, such as open access mandates, data management policies, and open science platforms. In this article, we will highlight some of the country leaders of open science and their initiatives.

  1. The Netherlands

The Netherlands is a pioneer in open science, and its government has been promoting open access to scientific publications since 2003. In 2013, the Dutch government launched the National Plan Open Science, which aims to make all publicly funded scientific publications in the Netherlands open access by 2020. The plan also promotes open data, open peer review, and citizen science. The Netherlands also hosts the Open Science Centre, a platform that provides tools and resources for open science.

  1. United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has been a strong advocate for open science, and its government has implemented several policies to promote it. In 2012, the UK government launched the Finch Report, which recommended that all publicly funded research should be made available in open access. In 2016, the UK government launched the Open Research Data Task Force, which aims to promote open data in research. The UK also hosts the UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) open access policy, which requires all research articles and conference papers resulting from UKRI funding to be made open access.

  1. Canada

Canada has been a leader in open science, and its government has implemented policies and initiatives to promote it. In 2015, the Canadian government launched the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy, which requires all peer-reviewed articles funded by the three major federal research funding agencies to be made open access within 12 months of publication. The Canadian government also launched the Open Science Implementation Plan, which aims to make all federally funded research data openly available by default.

  1. United States

The United States has also recognized the importance of open science and has implemented several policies and initiatives to promote it. In 2013, the Obama administration launched the Open Data Policy, which requires federal agencies to make their data open and machine-readable by default. In 2019, the US government launched the Federal Data Strategy, which aims to improve the management and use of federal data. The US government also hosts several open science platforms, such as the open data portal and the Open Science Framework.

  1. European Union

The European Union has also taken initiatives to promote open science. In 2016, the European Commission launched the Open Science Policy Platform, which provides advice and recommendations on open science to the Commission. In 2018, the European Commission launched the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC), which aims to provide a single access point for European research data. The EOSC also promotes open data, open access, and open science practices.

Open science is an initiative that is gaining momentum worldwide, and several countries are taking initiatives to promote it. These initiatives are aimed at making scientific research more accessible, transparent, and reproducible. The leaders of open science have implemented policies and strategies that support open access, open data, open source, and open peer review. As a result, scientific research is becoming more relevant and useful to society, and scientific discovery is accelerating.

Scientific Research Raises People From Poverty
Scientific Research Raises People From Poverty 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Scientific research has been instrumental in lifting people out of poverty, improving their quality of life, and helping them realize their full potential. Through innovative ideas, groundbreaking discoveries, and cutting-edge technologies, scientific research has transformed the world we live in, making it a better place to live for all.

One of the most significant contributions of scientific research to poverty reduction has been in the field of agriculture. Modern agricultural techniques have increased crop yields, reduced soil degradation, and improved the quality of crops, resulting in higher incomes for farmers and improved food security for communities. Advances in agricultural science have enabled farmers to grow crops in previously barren areas, leading to increased production and income.

Medical research has also played a vital role in reducing poverty, improving people’s health and well-being. Through the development of vaccines and medicines, scientists have helped to prevent and treat diseases that have historically plagued impoverished communities. Medical research has also led to the discovery of new treatments for chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease, which disproportionately affect low-income communities.

In addition to agriculture and medicine, scientific research has also contributed to poverty reduction through the development of renewable energy technologies. Access to affordable and reliable energy is critical for economic development, and renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power have the potential to provide clean and sustainable energy to millions of people around the world. Scientific research has helped to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of these technologies, making them more accessible to low-income communities.

Furthermore, scientific research has also contributed to poverty reduction through the development of innovative solutions to social problems. For example, researchers have developed low-cost water filtration systems, which have helped to provide clean drinking water to communities in developing countries. Similarly, advances in information technology have enabled low-income communities to access educational resources and job opportunities, helping to break the cycle of poverty and improve their quality of life.

Scientific research has been instrumental in raising people out of poverty and improving their lives. Through innovative ideas, groundbreaking discoveries, and cutting-edge technologies, scientists have transformed the world we live in, making it a better place for all. As we continue to face complex challenges, such as climate change, inequality, and global health crises, scientific research will continue to play a critical role in addressing these issues and improving the lives of people around the world.

Young Talents in Scientific Community
Young Talents in Scientific Community 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The scientific community is full of talented individuals who are passionate about their work and have the potential to make significant contributions to their field. However, finding these young talents can sometimes be a challenge. In this article, we will explore some of the ways that young talents in the scientific community can be discovered and nurtured.

Firstly, it is important to encourage young people to pursue their interests in science from a young age. This can be done by providing opportunities for them to explore different areas of science and technology, such as through science camps or after-school programs. By providing a supportive environment and access to resources, young people can begin to develop their interests and talents in science.

Another way to discover young talents in the scientific community is to support and mentor undergraduate and graduate students. These students are often working on cutting-edge research projects and may have unique insights or innovative ideas that can contribute to the field. By providing mentorship and support, researchers can help to develop these students’ skills and encourage them to continue their work in the future.

In addition, scientific conferences and competitions can provide a platform for young talents to showcase their work and gain recognition in their field. These events bring together researchers from around the world and provide opportunities for networking and collaboration. By participating in these events, young talents can gain valuable experience and exposure to the latest research in their field.

Another important factor in discovering young talents in the scientific community is diversity and inclusion. By promoting diversity in the scientific community, researchers can ensure that they are not overlooking talented individuals from underrepresented groups. This can be done by providing mentorship and support to students from diverse backgrounds, as well as by creating an inclusive and welcoming environment for all scientists.

Finally, funding agencies and research institutions can play a critical role in discovering and nurturing young talents in the scientific community. By providing funding and resources for innovative research projects, these organizations can help to support the next generation of scientists and encourage them to pursue their passions in science.

To sum up, discovering young talents in the scientific community is crucial for advancing scientific research and innovation. By providing opportunities for exploration and development, supporting undergraduate and graduate students, promoting diversity and inclusion, and providing funding and resources for research, we can help to ensure that the next generation of scientists is equipped to make significant contributions to their fields.

How Technology is Revolutionizing Scientific Research
How Technology is Revolutionizing Scientific Research 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The 21st century has witnessed a digital revolution that has impacted virtually every aspect of our lives, including the way we conduct scientific research. Digitalization has transformed the way we generate, analyze, store, and share data, making it easier for scientists to collaborate and disseminate their findings to a wider audience. At the same time, the rise of open science has challenged traditional practices in scientific research, encouraging greater transparency, collaboration, and accessibility.

Digitalization and open science are closely intertwined, as both rely on technology to enable new modes of scientific inquiry. Digitalization has allowed researchers to generate and collect vast amounts of data, using sophisticated sensors, imaging techniques, and computational tools. For example, the field of genomics has been revolutionized by advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, which can generate massive amounts of DNA data in a matter of hours. Similarly, the field of neuroscience has benefited from advanced imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which can capture detailed images of brain activity in real-time.

Once collected, these large datasets can be analyzed using powerful computational tools, such as machine learning algorithms, to identify patterns and insights that would be impossible to discern with traditional statistical methods. These tools can help researchers to uncover new associations and relationships between variables, and to develop more accurate models and predictions.

Open science, on the other hand, seeks to make scientific research more transparent, collaborative, and accessible to the wider community. This movement is driven by a growing recognition that scientific knowledge is a public good, and that research findings should be openly shared and evaluated by the scientific community. Open science encompasses a range of practices, including open access publishing, preprints, open data, and open peer review.

Open access publishing is a key component of open science, as it makes scientific publications freely available to anyone with an internet connection, rather than being restricted to those with access to expensive journal subscriptions. This model has gained traction in recent years, with many funding agencies and universities requiring researchers to publish their findings in open access journals.

Preprints are another important aspect of open science, as they allow researchers to share their findings with the scientific community before they undergo peer review. This enables researchers to receive feedback and improve their research before it is formally published, and can also help to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery.

Open data is another key component of open science, as it makes scientific data freely available to other researchers and the public. This can help to promote transparency, enable replication of results, and facilitate collaboration between researchers from different disciplines and institutions.

Finally, open peer review seeks to make the peer review process more transparent and accountable, by allowing reviewers to sign their reviews and share them publicly. This can help to reduce bias and promote constructive criticism, while also promoting greater engagement and participation from the scientific community.

Overall, digitalization and open science are transforming the landscape of scientific research, enabling new modes of inquiry and promoting greater transparency, collaboration, and accessibility. While these developments are not without challenges, including concerns around data privacy and quality control, they hold great promise for advancing scientific knowledge and addressing some of the world’s most pressing challenges. As technology continues to evolve, it will be interesting to see how these trends continue to shape the future of scientific research.

MCAA Around the World Webinar Series – Storytelling in Science
MCAA Around the World Webinar Series – Storytelling in Science 630 238 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Join for an exciting Microsoft Teams meeting on March 10, 2023, from 4:00 PM to 6:30 PM (UTC+01:00) as power of storytelling in science communication is explored. Speakers, Chiara Segré and Martins Zaumanis, will share their expertise and tips on how to effectively communicate science to non-experts without oversimplifying or distorting the scientific content. This event promises to be enlightening and engaging, so don’t miss out on this opportunity to learn and connect with like-minded individuals. Register now and join for this informative and inspiring discussion!

About speakers:

Chaira Segré is a biologist and research doctor in molecular oncology who holds a master’s degree in science journalism and communication. With eight years of experience in cancer research, she has been actively involved in scientific dissemination since 2010. She is currently the Head of Scientific Supervision at the Umberto Veronesi Foundation and is also a children’s and teenagers’ book author. In 2021, she co-authored the book “The secrets of the centenarians” (Sperling & Kupfer) for the Veronesi Foundation with Agnese Collino. According to her, scientific culture is essential for social and cultural development and is a prerequisite for every modern democratic society.

Martins Zaumanis is a researcher at Empa in Switzerland who is passionate about helping scientists effectively communicate their research. He has authored the “Peer Recognized” book series, providing practical advice on writing impactful research papers, delivering compelling academic presentations, securing research funding, and creating scientific visualizations. Through his blog, Martins shares useful tools to enhance scientists’ communication skills. In his upcoming presentation, Martins will share valuable tips on how to clearly communicate research findings. His research focus is on bringing sustainability to road pavements through recycling, warm mix asphalt, and the use of waste materials in asphalt production. He collaborates closely with road construction companies and road administrations to promote the adoption of these sustainable technologies.

Register here!

Champions of Open Science
Champions of Open Science 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

In the world of academia, scientific research has traditionally been a closely guarded domain, only accessible to those with the means and resources to access it. However, in recent years, there has been a growing movement towards open science and free access to knowledge. This movement has been driven by a number of dedicated individuals who have worked tirelessly to make scientific research more accessible to everyone, regardless of their financial or institutional resources. In this article, we will explore the contributions of some of the people who have played a significant role in making open science and free access to knowledge a reality.

  1. Brian Nosek: Brian Nosek is a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia and co-founder of the Center for Open Science. Nosek is a vocal advocate for open science and has conducted extensive research on scientific practices and biases. His work has helped to promote transparency and reproducibility in the field of psychology, and he has also developed several tools and resources to facilitate open science practices, such as the Open Science Framework.
  2. Jean-Claude Bradley: Jean-Claude Bradley was a chemist and professor at Drexel University who was a pioneer in the open science movement. Bradley was a strong advocate for open access to scientific research and data, and he was a proponent of using online tools to facilitate collaboration and sharing among researchers. He also developed several open science projects, including the Open Notebook Science Network and the UsefulChem project, which focused on open collaboration in the field of chemistry.
  3. John Wilbanks: John Wilbanks is a data commons expert who has worked with several organizations to promote open science practices. He has been a strong advocate for open access to scientific research and data, and he has helped to develop several tools and initiatives to facilitate this, such as the Consent to Research Project and the Sage Bionetworks Commons.
  4. Erin McKiernan: Erin McKiernan is a professor of physics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and a vocal advocate for open science practices. McKiernan has been involved in several initiatives to promote open access to scientific research and data, including the Open Access Button and the Cost of Knowledge project. She has also been a vocal proponent of open data and open educational resources.
  5. Michael Eisen: Michael Eisen is a biologist and co-founder of the Public Library of Science (PLOS), which is a nonprofit organization that promotes open access to scientific research. Eisen has been a strong advocate for open access publishing and has worked to develop several open science initiatives, including the Open Science Framework and the ASAPbio project.

These champions of open science have made significant contributions to the scientific community by promoting transparency, collaboration, and open access to scientific research and data. Their work has helped to advance the open science movement and has encouraged other researchers to adopt open science practices. As more scientists and organizations embrace open science, the scientific community will become more collaborative, transparent, and accessible to all.

Ways to Reach Open Science
Ways to Reach Open Science 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Open science is a movement that seeks to make scientific research and data accessible to all, thereby promoting collaboration, transparency, and reproducibility. It aims to promote scientific progress by making research findings freely available to the public and allowing others to build on and extend research. The concept of open science has gained popularity in recent years, as researchers recognize the need to make their work more transparent, accessible, and impactful. In this article, we will discuss some ways to reach open science.

  1. Publish open access:

Open access publishing makes research articles available to everyone without charge. By publishing your research in an open access journal, you can increase the visibility and impact of your work, as well as promote scientific progress by making your research accessible to others. Open access journals usually provide a peer-review process that ensures the quality of the research, and the articles are often available under a Creative Commons license, which allows others to use and build on the research.

  1. Use open data:

Many researchers are now making their data publicly available to others to use, analyze, and build on. By using open data in your own research, you can save time and resources and make your research more transparent and reproducible. Open data can be found in many repositories such as Zenodo, Dryad, or Figshare, and can be used for various purposes, from validating results to discovering new scientific questions.

  1. Collaborate with others:

Collaboration is a key component of open science. By collaborating with others, you can share resources and expertise, and work together to solve complex problems. Collaboration can take many forms, such as co-authoring papers, participating in multi-disciplinary teams, or contributing to open-source projects.

  1. Participate in open science initiatives:

There are many open science initiatives that you can participate in, such as open science conferences, workshops, and hackathons. These events provide opportunities to learn about open science, network with other researchers, and contribute to open science projects. For example, the Open Science MOOC is an online course that provides an introduction to open science principles, while the OpenCon conference is an annual event that brings together researchers, educators, and students to promote open access, open data, and open education.

  1. Use open source software:

Open source software is software that is made freely available to everyone to use, modify, and distribute. By using open source software in your research, you can save time and resources, and contribute to the development of new tools and technologies. Open source software can be found in many areas, from data analysis to machine learning, and can be customized to suit the needs of the researcher.

  1. Educate others about open science:

Educating others about open science is a great way to promote the movement and raise awareness about the benefits of open science. You can give talks, organize workshops, or write articles or blog posts about open science to help spread the word. By educating others about open science, you can help promote a culture of openness and transparency in research.

  1. Advocate for open science policies:

You can advocate for open science policies at your institution, funding agency, or government level. By advocating for policies that promote open access, open data, and open source software, you can help create a more open and transparent scientific community. Some examples of policies that promote open science include the Plan S initiative, which requires that all research funded by participating organizations be made open access, and the FAIR principles, which provide guidelines for making research data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable.

Open science is a movement that promotes collaboration, transparency, and reproducibility in scientific research. By publishing open access, using open data, collaborating with others, participating in open science initiatives, using open source software, educating others, and advocating for open science policies, you can help promote open science and contribute to scientific progress.

Entrepreneurship Promotes Open Science
Entrepreneurship Promotes Open Science 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

In recent years, entrepreneurship and open science have emerged as powerful forces driving innovation and economic growth. While these two fields may seem unrelated at first glance, they are actually deeply intertwined. Entrepreneurship promotes open science by providing a platform for researchers and scientists to collaborate, share their ideas and discoveries, and turn their innovations into successful businesses.

Entrepreneurship and open science share many common goals, including innovation, collaboration, and the creation of new knowledge. Entrepreneurs are often driven by a desire to solve real-world problems and create new products or services that have a positive impact on society. Similarly, open science aims to advance scientific knowledge and create public goods that benefit society as a whole.

One way in which entrepreneurship promotes open science is by providing a platform for researchers and scientists to turn their ideas and discoveries into successful businesses. Startups often emerge from academic research or scientific discoveries, and they can provide a pathway for these innovations to reach the market and have a real-world impact.

Furthermore, startups often rely on open science principles to develop their products or services. For example, many software startups build their products using open-source software, which allows for collaboration and innovation among developers. This approach can lead to faster development times, better quality products, and more efficient use of resources.

Startups can also play a role in promoting open science by partnering with academic researchers and scientific institutions to share data and collaborate on research projects. This can lead to more innovative and impactful research, as well as new commercial opportunities for startups.

Entrepreneurship and open science are two fields that are deeply interconnected. By promoting transparency, collaboration, and innovation, both fields have the potential to drive economic growth and create positive social impact. Startups, in particular, can play a powerful role in promoting open science by providing a platform for researchers and scientists to turn their ideas into successful businesses, and by collaborating with academic researchers to advance scientific knowledge and create new commercial opportunities. As the worlds of entrepreneurship and open science continue to evolve and intersect, we can expect to see new and exciting innovations that benefit society as a whole.

Universality of Science
Universality of Science 1024 682 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Science is often considered to be one of the most universal subjects, with its principles and methodologies being applicable across all fields of study. The universality of science stems from the fact that it is based on a set of logical and empirical principles that can be applied to any area of inquiry. This article explores the universality of science and its importance in our understanding of the world around us.

Science is a systematic approach to understanding the natural world. It is based on the idea that natural phenomena can be studied using a set of logical and empirical principles. These principles include observation, experimentation, hypothesis testing, and the formulation of theories. Science is therefore universal because it is not limited to any particular subject or discipline, but can be applied to all fields of study.

One of the key features of science is its objectivity. Science is based on facts and evidence that can be observed and measured. This means that scientific findings are not influenced by personal beliefs or biases. The scientific method is designed to ensure that results are reliable and can be replicated by other researchers. This objectivity is a fundamental aspect of the universality of science, as it means that scientific findings are applicable to all areas of inquiry, regardless of personal beliefs or opinions.

The universality of science is also evident in the fact that scientific principles are used in a wide range of fields. For example, in medicine, scientific principles are used to diagnose and treat diseases. In engineering, scientific principles are used to design and build structures, machines, and systems. In agriculture, scientific principles are used to improve crop yields and develop new farming techniques. The list of fields that rely on scientific principles is endless, highlighting the universality of science in our everyday lives.

Another important aspect of the universality of science is its ability to explain natural phenomena. Through the use of scientific principles, we can explain the behavior of the natural world, from the movements of planets to the behavior of subatomic particles. It allows us to make predictions about future events and to develop technologies that improve our quality of life.

To sum up, the universality of science is a fundamental aspect of our understanding of the world. Its logical and empirical principles can be applied to any area of inquiry, making it a universal subject that is applicable to all fields of study. The objectivity of science ensures that its findings are reliable and can be replicated by other researchers. The ability of science to explain natural phenomena is also crucial in our understanding of the world around us. As such, the universality of science is essential in our pursuit of knowledge and our development of new technologies.

Improving Research Assessment
Improving Research Assessment 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The importance of research in advancing knowledge and understanding in various fields cannot be overemphasized. However, the process of assessing research quality and disseminating research findings to the wider public remains a challenge. In recent years, there has been a growing call for improving research assessment and providing more accessible access to free knowledge. This article discusses some strategies that can be adopted to achieve these objectives.

One of the most significant challenges in research assessment is the overreliance on quantitative metrics such as journal impact factor, citation counts, and h-index. While these metrics can be useful indicators of research quality, they are often used as the sole criterion for evaluating researchers and their work. This approach is flawed because it fails to take into account other important factors such as the impact of research on society, interdisciplinary collaborations, and the engagement of researchers with the wider public. To improve research assessment, a more holistic approach that considers multiple metrics and qualitative indicators should be adopted.

One possible solution is the adoption of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), which was developed in 2012 by a group of editors and publishers of scholarly journals and scientific societies. DORA emphasizes the need to evaluate research on its own merits rather than relying on journal-based metrics. It also encourages the use of a range of indicators, such as the societal impact of research, the quality of publications, and the development of new methods and tools.

Another critical aspect of improving research assessment is to ensure that research findings are more widely available to the public. Currently, many research articles are published in journals that are behind paywalls, making them inaccessible to the general public. This limits the dissemination of research findings and restricts the potential impact of research on society.

To address this issue, open access publishing can be adopted. Open access publishing allows anyone to access research articles without the need for a subscription or payment. This approach can be achieved through two main models: the green model and the gold model. The green model involves authors depositing their pre-print or post-print versions of the article in a public repository or institutional repository, while the gold model involves authors publishing their work in open access journals.

Another way to increase the accessibility of research findings is through the use of preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv. Preprint servers allow researchers to share their research findings before they are peer-reviewed and published in a journal. This approach allows for rapid dissemination of research findings and facilitates collaboration among researchers. However, it is important to note that preprints should not be seen as a substitute for peer-reviewed publications.

Lastly, improving research assessment and providing more accessible access to free knowledge is essential for advancing knowledge and understanding in various fields. A more holistic approach to research assessment that considers multiple metrics and qualitative indicators should be adopted. Additionally, open access publishing and the use of preprint servers can increase the accessibility of research findings to the wider public. These strategies will help to ensure that research findings have a greater impact on society and contribute to the advancement of knowledge.

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