How Open Access is Challenging Publisher Monopolies
How Open Access is Challenging Publisher Monopolies 639 400 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Today, I want to dive into a topic that’s causing ripples in the academic world: the disruptive force of open access on publisher monopolies. Now, you might be wondering, what’s the big deal with open access, and why should we care about challenging publisher monopolies? Well, my friends, buckle up because we’re about to embark on a journey through the fascinating realm of academic publishing.

Let’s start with the basics. Academic publishing has long been dominated by a handful of big players who hold the keys to accessing scholarly research. These publishers wield immense power, controlling the dissemination of knowledge and reaping hefty profits along the way. Sounds a bit unfair, doesn’t it? That’s where open access swoops in like a superhero with a cape fluttering in the wind.

So, what exactly is open access? Simply put, it’s a movement aimed at making scholarly research freely available to anyone with an internet connection. No paywalls, no subscriptions, just pure, unadulterated knowledge accessible to all. It’s like breaking down the gates of the ivory tower and inviting everyone to the feast of learning.

But why does open access matter? Well, imagine you’re a curious soul eager to explore the latest breakthroughs in your field of interest. You stumble upon a groundbreaking study, only to be greeted by a hefty price tag just to read it. Talk about a buzzkill, right? Open access flips the script by tearing down these barriers, allowing researchers, students, and enthusiasts alike to explore a treasure trove of academic literature without emptying their wallets.

Now, here’s where things get really interesting. By challenging publisher monopolies, open access is shaking up the status quo and ushering in a new era of democratized knowledge. Gone are the days when a select few dictated the flow of information. With open access, researchers have the power to share their findings freely, accelerating the pace of discovery and fostering collaboration on a global scale.

But make no mistake, breaking down publisher monopolies isn’t a walk in the park. It’s a David-versus-Goliath battle where entrenched interests clash with the forces of change. Yet, the momentum is on the side of open access advocates, fueled by grassroots movements, institutional mandates, and the relentless march of progress.

So, what’s next on the horizon for open access? Well, the future looks bright, my friends. As more institutions and funders throw their weight behind open access initiatives, the walls of the old publishing fortress are starting to crumble. We’re witnessing a seismic shift in how knowledge is produced, shared, and consumed—a revolution driven by the simple yet profound idea that knowledge should be free for all.

As I wrap up this journey through the world of open access, I invite you to join the movement, whether as a researcher, a reader, or simply a curious soul hungry for knowledge. Together, we can continue to chip away at publisher monopolies, paving the way for a more equitable and accessible future of scholarly communication. After all, in the words of the great Isaac Newton, “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” With open access, those shoulders are within reach of us all.

Photo via The Fire Place

University Champions of Open Science
University Champions of Open Science 600 267 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Hey there, fellow knowledge seekers! Today, I’m thrilled to shine a spotlight on some of the leading institutions driving the open science movement forward. Yes, you guessed it right—it’s time to talk about the University Champions of Open Science!

In our journey towards a future where knowledge knows no bounds, several universities stand out for their unwavering commitment to open science principles. Let’s take a closer look at a few of these trailblazers:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Ah, MIT—the hallowed halls where innovation thrives and boundaries are meant to be pushed. But did you know that MIT isn’t just about cutting-edge research and mind-boggling inventions? It’s also a beacon of open access and knowledge sharing. From their pioneering OpenCourseWare initiative, which makes course materials freely available online, to their advocacy for open access publishing, MIT is a true champion of open science.

University of California, Berkeley: Nestled in the vibrant city of Berkeley, this institution is not only renowned for its towering redwoods but also for its staunch support of open access and open science initiatives. UC Berkeley’s libraries provide extensive resources and guidance for researchers looking to make their work more accessible to the world. Plus, the university isn’t shy about advocating for policies that promote the sharing of research outputs—because knowledge is meant to be shared, not hoarded behind closed doors.

Stanford University: Welcome to the land of innovation and Silicon Valley dreams—Stanford University. But beyond the buzz of startup culture lies a deep commitment to open science. Stanford’s Open Data Project is a testament to this commitment, aiming to make research data more accessible and reusable for all. And let’s not forget the university’s dedication to hosting workshops and seminars on open science topics, encouraging researchers to embrace transparency and collaboration in their work.

University College London (UCL): Across the pond in the bustling heart of London, UCL stands tall as a champion of open science. With its Office for Open Science and Scholarship leading the charge, UCL provides invaluable guidance and support for researchers eager to adopt open science principles. Whether it’s advocating for open access publishing or hosting events to raise awareness about the importance of openness in research, UCL is paving the way for a more transparent and inclusive scientific community.

University of Cambridge: Last but certainly not least, we have the historic University of Cambridge—a bastion of learning and discovery for centuries. But don’t let its ancient roots fool you—Cambridge is at the forefront of the open science movement. With dedicated support services for researchers seeking to make their work more accessible and a commitment to hosting events and workshops on open science topics, Cambridge is ensuring that the pursuit of knowledge remains open to all who seek it.

These universities, along with many others around the globe, are leading the charge towards a future where knowledge is free, accessible, and inclusive. So here’s to the University Champions of Open Science—may their dedication to openness and collaboration inspire us all to unlock the secrets of the universe, one discovery at a time!

Photo via NumFocus

The Societal Impact of Open Science: A Comprehensive Review
The Societal Impact of Open Science: A Comprehensive Review 992 1024 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Abstract: Open Science (OS) has emerged as a transformative approach to research, aiming to democratize access to knowledge and enhance its societal impact. However, assessing this impact poses significant challenges. This scoping review systematically examines existing evidence on the societal impact of OS, encompassing various aspects such as Citizen Science (CS), Open Access (OA), and Open/FAIR Data (OFD). Through a meticulous analysis of 196 studies, this review identifies key areas of impact and sheds light on knowledge gaps, providing insights for future research and policy development.

Introduction: In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on measuring the societal impact of academic research, driven by government policies and funding frameworks worldwide. The adoption of Open Science (OS) practices aligns with this agenda, aiming to foster transparency, inclusivity, and accessibility in research. Despite these intentions, the empirical evidence regarding the societal impact of OS remains scarce. This review aims to address this gap by systematically synthesizing existing literature on the topic.

Methods: This review follows the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews methodology and poses primary and secondary research questions to guide the study. Through a comprehensive search strategy across academic databases and grey literature sources, relevant studies are identified, selected, and analyzed. The study protocol, pre-registered and published on the Open Science Framework platform, ensures methodological rigor and transparency.

Results: The review identifies 196 studies providing evidence of societal impact driven by OS, with a predominant focus on Citizen Science (CS), followed by Open Access (OA). Key areas of impact include education and awareness, climate and environment, and social engagement. However, limited evidence is found regarding the impact of Open/FAIR Data (OFD) and other aspects of OS, such as policy, health, and trust in academic research.

Discussion: The findings underscore the need for further empirical research to comprehensively understand the societal impact of OS. While OS holds the potential to enhance societal benefit, challenges related to causality and measurement persist. Addressing these challenges requires concerted efforts from researchers, funders, and policymakers to develop robust methodologies and frameworks for assessing impact.

Conclusion: This scoping review provides valuable insights into the societal impact of Open Science, highlighting both its potential and limitations. By elucidating key areas of impact and identifying knowledge gaps, this review informs future research agendas and policy interventions aimed at maximizing the societal benefits of OS.

Keywords: Open Science, Societal Impact, Citizen Science, Open Access, Research Policy, Scoping Review.

Cole, N. L., Kormann, E., Klebel, T., Apartis, S., & Ross-Hellauer, T. (2024, February 21). The societal impact of Open Science–a scoping review. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/tqrwg

Photo via Open Access Belgium

European Regional Differences in Implementing Open Science Principles
European Regional Differences in Implementing Open Science Principles 850 705 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

While the overarching principles of Open Science are global, the implementation of these principles can vary significantly across different regions. In Europe, this diversity is particularly pronounced due to the continent’s rich tapestry of cultures, policies, and research landscapes. Let’s delve into the fascinating regional differences in the implementation of Open Science principles across Europe.

Northern Europe: Pioneers of Open Science Northern European countries such as Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland have long been at the forefront of Open Science initiatives. These nations boast robust infrastructures and a strong culture of collaboration and transparency in research. Institutions and funding agencies in these countries have been quick to adopt Open Science principles, mandating open access publishing, data sharing, and promoting open-source software.

The Netherlands, for instance, is renowned for its commitment to Open Science, with institutions like Delft University of Technology leading the charge. The Dutch government has implemented policies to ensure that publicly funded research results are openly accessible, contributing to the widespread adoption of Open Science practices.

Central and Eastern Europe: Embracing Open Science Amid Challenges Central and Eastern European countries have made significant strides in embracing Open Science, albeit facing unique challenges. Countries like Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic have been proactive in adopting Open Science policies, recognizing its potential to enhance research quality and innovation.

However, infrastructure limitations, funding constraints, and cultural factors pose obstacles to the widespread adoption of Open Science practices in these regions. Despite these challenges, grassroots movements and international collaborations are driving progress. Initiatives like the Central European Initiative (CEI) Open Science Days provide platforms for knowledge exchange and capacity building in Open Science.

Western Europe: Diverse Approaches and Collaborations Western European countries exhibit a diverse array of approaches to Open Science, reflecting their varied research ecosystems and policy frameworks. While countries like Germany and France have made significant investments in Open Science infrastructure and policies, others such as Spain and Italy are navigating their own paths towards greater openness in research.

Collaborative efforts, such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC), aim to foster interoperability and data sharing across borders. Projects like these exemplify the spirit of cooperation and solidarity in advancing Open Science principles throughout the continent.

Challenges and Opportunities: Ahead Despite the progress made in implementing Open Science principles across Europe, significant challenges persist. These include issues related to data privacy, intellectual property rights, and cultural barriers to openness. Furthermore, disparities in funding and resources among European countries can exacerbate inequalities in accessing and participating in Open Science initiatives.

However, amidst these challenges lie vast opportunities for collaboration, innovation, and positive change. By leveraging the diversity of Europe’s research landscape and fostering inclusive practices, the continent can continue to lead the way in advancing Open Science on a global scale.

European regional differences in the implementation of Open Science principles highlight the complex interplay between policy, culture, and infrastructure. From the pioneering efforts of Northern Europe to the emerging initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe, each region brings its own unique perspectives and challenges to the table. By embracing collaboration, investing in infrastructure, and promoting a culture of openness, Europe can truly realize the transformative potential of Open Science for the benefit of society as a whole.

Photo via ResearchGate

Eurodoc launches its “Gender Equality in Research” Campaign
Eurodoc launches its “Gender Equality in Research” Campaign 680 449 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

In recent years, Eurodoc has taken significant strides towards advancing Gender Equality in academia, alongside a heightened focus on diversity and inclusion. Last year, their initiative spotlighted the invaluable contributions of female researchers within the Eurodoc community through the “Women in Research” campaign. Building upon this momentum, they are thrilled to announce the expansion of this campaign to embrace researchers of all genders, underscoring our belief that everyone plays a pivotal role in promoting gender equality in research environments.

Symbolically launching on March 8th, International Women’s Day, our campaign seeks to address the multifaceted nature of gender discrimination as outlined in the Istanbul Convention. It encompasses not only discrimination faced by women due to socially prescribed roles but also extends to challenges encountered by individuals whose gender identity or sexual orientation deviates from societal norms. Understanding that these dimensions of discrimination stem from deeply entrenched cultural paradigms, we aim to create a platform where diverse voices can converge to advocate for equal rights across all spheres of life.

At the heart of their campaign lies a commitment to amplifying the stories of researchers who defy stereotypes and champion inclusivity within academia. Each participant brings a unique perspective, reflecting a rich tapestry of backgrounds, experiences, and aspirations in the pursuit of knowledge. By sharing these narratives, they hope to cultivate a diverse array of role models, demonstrating that excellence in research transcends traditional notions of merit and is inclusive of all who are passionate about advancing knowledge.

As they invite researchers to join our campaign, they encourage reflection on the following questions:

  1. Who are you, and where are you from?
  2. What is your research about?
  3. Why did you pursue a career in research?

In addition, participants are invited to share their insights on why gender equality is important to them and offer examples of strategies for fostering inclusivity within research environments.

To take part in the campaign, simply fill out the Google form linked below and share your story on social media using the hashtags: #WeAreEurodoc, #WomenInResearch, #Eurodoc, #doctoralcandidates, #early_career_researchers. Together, let us pave the way for a more equitable and inclusive future in academia.

Google Form: Participate in the Campaign

More at Eurodoc

ROSiE project (Responsible Open Science in Europe) Final Event: ‘Research Integrity in Open Science for Europe’, 21.02.24 at the European Parliament and online
ROSiE project (Responsible Open Science in Europe) Final Event: ‘Research Integrity in Open Science for Europe’, 21.02.24 at the European Parliament and online 1024 768 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The final event of the Responsible Open Science in Europe (ROSiE) project is set to take place next Wednesday, the 21st of February, at 15:00 CET. The event will be hosted both physically at the European Parliament and virtually, opening its discussions to a global audience.

Themed ‘Research Integrity in Open Science for Europe,’ the event will delve into the intricate intersection of Open Science practices with existing policies, posing potential challenges such as conflicts with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), intellectual property regulations, and funding restrictions. Esteemed experts will lead discussions on the imperative need for a robust governance structure that can drive a paradigm shift in scientific approaches, guided by the principles of Research Ethics and Integrity.

Organised by the European Parliament’s STOA Panel for the Future of Science and Technology, the workshop promises to be a focal point for policymakers, scientists, and stakeholders alike. As Open Science continues to evolve, it becomes essential to address the ethical, legal, and regulatory aspects to ensure a harmonious coexistence with existing frameworks.

Research integrity is a foundation of excellent science and the cornerstone of societal trust in researchers and research institutions. Advancing research integrity across Europe is of the utmost importance to ensure the high quality of science, including reproducibility of research results, and to ensure a fruitful relationship between science and society.

Open Science (OS) is an approach to the scientific process that focuses on spreading knowledge as soon as it is available using digital and collaborative technology. Open Science is a policy priority for the European Union and the standard method of working under its research and innovation funding programmes as it improves the quality, efficiency and responsiveness of research.

The roundtable intends to uncover how unchecked challenges in Open Science can jeopardize academic freedom. Open Science demands a shift in scientific mindset and robust governance structures–infrastructure, codes of conduct, regulations, and training. Deficiencies in these elements pose critical threats to researchers and institutions, impacting academic freedom, diversity, and inclusivity in science.

Experts, researchers together with policy makers discuss how Open Science in Europe intersects with policy, potentially conflicting with GDPR, intellectual property regulations, and funding restrictions. They also explore the imperative for a governance structure driving a paradigm shift in science, guided by Research Ethics and Integrity.


15.00 – 15.05 Opening

· Ivars IJABS MEP and STOA Vice-Chair

15.05 – 15.10 Keynote

· Iliana IVANOVA, EU Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth

15.10 – 15.30 Keynote ‘Science in Transition’

· Frank MIEDEMA, Professor of Open Science, University of Utrecht

15:30 -16:30 Panel discussion ‘Open Science challenges’

  • Elizabeth GADD, Head of Research Culture & Assessment at Loughborough University
  • Marcel BOGERS, Professor of Open & Collaborative Innovation, Eindhoven University of Technology
  • Henriikka MUSTAJOKI, Head of Development, Open Science, Finland

Moderator: Rose BERNABE, Professor of Research Ethics and Research Integrity, University of Oslo

+ Q&A

16:30 -16:50 Coffee break

16:50 -17:55 Panel discussion ‘Responsible Open Science in Europe General Guidelines and Academic Freedom’

  • Rose BERNABE, Professor of Research Ethics and Research Integrity, University of Oslo
  • Olivier LE GALL, Chair of the French Advisory Board on Research Integrity
  • Signe MEZINSKA, Associate Professor and Senior Researcher, University of Latvia
  • Kadri SIMM, Chair of the Practical Philosophy, Associate Professor, University of Tartu

Moderator: Rose BERNABE, Professor of Research Ethics and Research Integrity, University of Oslo

+ Q&A

17:55 – 18:00 Closing remarks

· Ivars IJABS, MEP and STOA Vice-Chair


The event will be held in EN.

The event will be webstreamed.

More information, the programme and the registration link are here. The introductory interview is available here.

EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) 2024
EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) 2024 894 589 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) 2024 will take place from June 12 to June 15, 2024, in Katowice, Poland.

The EuroScience Open Forum is a biennial meeting designed to offer the scientific community a platform for interdisciplinary and intersectional debate about scientific culture, scientific research, and innovation. It is created for society’s benefit and carried out with society’s participation.

Goal of the conference
The main goal of the ESOF2024 conference is to explore the connections between science and society, the conditions for conducting research, and their impact on society. We aim to stimulate debate on social changes related to science and analyse the social, cultural, and economic consequences of scientific breakthroughs at regional, national, European, and global levels. In the face of global challenges and to enhance international scientific cooperation, scientists want to discuss science as a factor of change in our lives and how life changes science.

The programme includes lectures, seminars, a debate, workshops, poster presentations and exhibitions, interactive sessions, and a wide array of public engagement forms. The theme for ESOF 2024 is: Life changes science. 

Katowice will host Europe’s and the world’s leading personalities in the world of science, academic researchers, representatives of public and non-public institutions supporting science, business people, representatives of media, and those interested in the role of science in the contemporary world. 

ESOF2024 is centred around the six main areas corresponding to the biggest challenges science is currently facing:

  1. Energy Transition
  2. Sustainable Environment
  3. Cultural Identity and Societal Transformation
  4. Changes Within Scientific Excellence
  5. Healthy Society
  6. Digital Transformation


Join IMPETUS: Empowering Citizen Science Projects
Join IMPETUS: Empowering Citizen Science Projects 1024 342 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Are you passionate about citizen science? Do you have a project that aims to make a positive impact on society? If so, IMPETUS wants to hear from you! The IMPETUS 2nd Joint Open Call is now open, offering exciting opportunities for both new and existing citizen science initiatives.

What is IMPETUS?

IMPETUS is dedicated to fostering innovation and collaboration in citizen science. Through their Accelerator Programme and the European Union Prize for citizen science, they aim to support and recognize outstanding projects that engage communities, address societal challenges, and promote sustainable practices.

Accelerator Programme Opportunities

If you’re considering launching a new citizen science project or seeking support to sustain an existing one, the IMPETUS Accelerator Programme is for you. Successful applicants can receive:

  • Kickstarting grants: €20,000, mentoring, and training support for new projects.
  • Sustaining grants: €10,000, mentoring, and training support for ongoing projects.

This year’s Accelerator challenges focus on “Sustainable Lifestyles,” “Justice and Equity,” and “Citizen Science for and With Communities.” Your project should align with one or more of these themes.

Who Can Apply?

Individuals, organizations, and consortia from eligible countries can apply for funding. Whether you’re a researcher, a community group, or an organization in the public or private sector, IMPETUS welcomes your innovative ideas and contributions.

European Union Prize for Citizen Science

In addition to the Accelerator Programme, IMPETUS is offering the European Union Prize for citizen science. This prize recognizes exceptional initiatives with a €60,000 Grand Prize, along with awards for Diversity & Collaboration and Digital Communities.

Why Should You Apply?

IMPETUS values inclusivity and seeks projects that make a difference on local, national, or international levels. They’re particularly interested in initiatives that engage marginalized or disadvantaged groups and explore novel participatory roles for citizens and stakeholders.

Important Dates and Resources

  • Open Call Launch: January 10th, 2024
  • Prize Call Closes: March 11th, 2024
  • Accelerator Call Closes: March 14th, 2024

For more information, visit the IMPETUS website and access application forms, guides, and FAQs. Don’t miss this opportunity to be part of a vibrant community dedicated to advancing citizen science!

Join IMPETUS today and be a catalyst for positive change through citizen science.

Click here to access application forms and submission platform.

For any questions, reach out to opencall@impetus4cs.eu.

Stay connected for updates on additional translations and further opportunities at IMPETUS website!

Enhancing Scholarly Communication
Enhancing Scholarly Communication 736 574 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

In the area of academia, communication serves as the lifeblood that sustains its growth and evolution. Imagine a world where researchers, scholars, and students operate in isolated bubbles, their knowledge confined within the walls of their institutions, inaccessible to others. Such a scenario stifles progress and innovation, hindering the very essence of academic pursuit.

Fortunately, the landscape is changing. The advent of digital technologies and the proliferation of online platforms have revolutionized scholarly communication, fostering connectivity and collaboration on an unprecedented scale. This paradigm shift is not merely about embracing new tools; it’s about redefining how knowledge is disseminated, shared, and engaged with across disciplines and borders.

At the heart of this transformation lies the concept of scholarly communication enhancement—a multifaceted endeavor aimed at breaking down barriers, facilitating interdisciplinary dialogue, and democratizing access to knowledge. Let’s delve deeper into how this enhancement is reshaping the academic ecosystem:

  1. Open Access Initiatives: Traditionally, access to scholarly literature was often restricted by paywalls and subscription fees, limiting its reach to only those affiliated with well-endowed institutions. Open access initiatives challenge this status quo by making research outputs freely available to anyone with an internet connection. By removing financial barriers, open access not only promotes equitable access to knowledge but also enhances visibility and citation impact for researchers.
  2. Preprint Servers: In the age of rapid dissemination, waiting for months or even years for research findings to undergo peer review and publication in traditional journals can impede scientific progress. Preprint servers offer a solution by allowing researchers to share their findings publicly before formal peer review. This accelerates the pace of discovery, invites feedback from the global research community, and fosters collaboration.
  3. Data Sharing and Reproducibility: Transparency and reproducibility are fundamental tenets of robust scientific inquiry. Scholarly communication enhancement advocates for greater transparency by promoting data sharing practices and reproducibility standards. By making research data openly available and ensuring the reproducibility of findings, researchers can build upon existing knowledge with confidence, advancing the collective understanding of complex phenomena.
  4. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Many of today’s most pressing challenges—from climate change to global health crises—are inherently interdisciplinary in nature. Scholarly communication enhancement encourages collaboration across disciplinary boundaries, facilitating the exchange of ideas, methodologies, and insights. By fostering interdisciplinary dialogue, researchers can approach complex problems from multiple perspectives, leading to more holistic and innovative solutions.
  5. Digital Tools and Platforms: The digital revolution has birthed a myriad of tools and platforms designed to enhance scholarly communication. From reference management software to collaborative writing platforms, these tools streamline the research process, promote collaboration, and amplify the impact of scholarly outputs. Embracing these digital innovations empowers researchers to work more efficiently and effectively in today’s interconnected world.

Scholarly communication enhancement is not just a buzzword; it’s a fundamental shift in how knowledge is created, shared, and utilized in the academic sphere. By embracing open access principles, leveraging digital technologies, and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, we can build bridges that transcend disciplinary boundaries, democratize access to knowledge, and accelerate the pace of discovery. As we navigate the ever-evolving landscape of academia, let us continue to champion initiatives that enhance scholarly communication, paving the way for a more inclusive, collaborative, and impactful academic community.

Photo via University of Cambridge

Understanding the Different Types of Open Access
Understanding the Different Types of Open Access 870 349 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

In today’s digital age, accessing information has become easier than ever before. One concept that has gained significant traction in the academic and research community is open access. Open access refers to the practice of making scholarly articles, research findings, and other forms of knowledge freely available to the public without financial, legal, or technical barriers.

However, not all open access is the same. There are different types or models of open access, each with its own characteristics and implications. Let’s explore some of the common types of open access in simple terms:

  1. Gold Open Access: Think of gold open access as a treasure chest full of valuable knowledge freely accessible to everyone. In this model, the author or their institution typically pays a fee, known as an article processing charge (APC), to the publisher. In return, the published work is immediately and freely available to anyone with internet access. Journals that operate on this model are often referred to as “fully open access” or “pure open access” journals.
  2. Green Open Access: Imagine a lush green garden where seeds of knowledge are planted and allowed to grow freely. Green open access involves authors depositing their research outputs, such as preprints or postprints, into institutional or disciplinary repositories. These repositories make the work freely accessible after a certain embargo period, during which the publisher may have exclusive rights to distribute the work. It’s like sharing your work in a public library after a short waiting period.
  3. Hybrid Open Access: This type of open access is like a mixed bag, offering both traditional subscription-based publishing and open access options. In hybrid journals, some articles are freely accessible to everyone, while others are available only to subscribers or through pay-per-view options. Authors usually have the choice to pay an APC to make their individual articles openly accessible within an otherwise subscription-based journal.
  4. Gratis Open Access: Gratis is a Latin term meaning “free,” and in the context of open access, it refers to free access to content without payment. Gratis open access allows users to read, download, and distribute scholarly articles at no cost. However, this model may not grant users certain rights, such as the ability to reuse or modify the content for commercial purposes, which leads us to our next type.
  5. Libre Open Access: Libre, also from Latin, means “liberty” or “freedom.” Libre open access not only provides free access to content but also grants users additional rights, such as the ability to reuse, remix, and redistribute the content without restrictions. This model aligns closely with the principles of open knowledge and encourages innovation and collaboration.

Understanding the different types of open access can help researchers, academics, and the general public navigate the vast landscape of scholarly communication. Whether it’s gold, green, hybrid, gratis, or libre open access, the overarching goal remains the same: to democratize access to knowledge and foster the advancement of research and learning for the benefit of society as a whole.

Photo via University Library of Potsdam

Privacy Preferences

When you visit our website, it may store information through your browser from specific services, usually in the form of cookies. Our Privacy Policy can be read here.

Here you can change your Privacy preferences. It is worth noting that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our website and the services we are able to offer.

Click to enable/disable Google Analytics tracking code.
Click to enable/disable Google Fonts.
Click to enable/disable Google Maps.
Click to enable/disable video embeds.
Our website uses cookies, mainly from 3rd party services. Define your Privacy Preferences and/or agree to our use of cookies.