OpenScience

Country Leaders of Open Science
Country Leaders of Open Science 1024 682 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Open Science is an initiative that aims to make scientific research more transparent, accessible, and reproducible. It is based on the principles of open access, open data, open source, and open peer review. The goal of open science is to improve the quality and impact of scientific research, to accelerate scientific discovery, and to make science more relevant and useful to society.

Several countries around the world have recognized the potential of open science and have taken initiatives to promote it. These countries have implemented policies and strategies that support open science, such as open access mandates, data management policies, and open science platforms. In this article, we will highlight some of the country leaders of open science and their initiatives.

  1. The Netherlands

The Netherlands is a pioneer in open science, and its government has been promoting open access to scientific publications since 2003. In 2013, the Dutch government launched the National Plan Open Science, which aims to make all publicly funded scientific publications in the Netherlands open access by 2020. The plan also promotes open data, open peer review, and citizen science. The Netherlands also hosts the Open Science Centre, a platform that provides tools and resources for open science.

  1. United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has been a strong advocate for open science, and its government has implemented several policies to promote it. In 2012, the UK government launched the Finch Report, which recommended that all publicly funded research should be made available in open access. In 2016, the UK government launched the Open Research Data Task Force, which aims to promote open data in research. The UK also hosts the UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) open access policy, which requires all research articles and conference papers resulting from UKRI funding to be made open access.

  1. Canada

Canada has been a leader in open science, and its government has implemented policies and initiatives to promote it. In 2015, the Canadian government launched the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy, which requires all peer-reviewed articles funded by the three major federal research funding agencies to be made open access within 12 months of publication. The Canadian government also launched the Open Science Implementation Plan, which aims to make all federally funded research data openly available by default.

  1. United States

The United States has also recognized the importance of open science and has implemented several policies and initiatives to promote it. In 2013, the Obama administration launched the Open Data Policy, which requires federal agencies to make their data open and machine-readable by default. In 2019, the US government launched the Federal Data Strategy, which aims to improve the management and use of federal data. The US government also hosts several open science platforms, such as the open data portal and the Open Science Framework.

  1. European Union

The European Union has also taken initiatives to promote open science. In 2016, the European Commission launched the Open Science Policy Platform, which provides advice and recommendations on open science to the Commission. In 2018, the European Commission launched the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC), which aims to provide a single access point for European research data. The EOSC also promotes open data, open access, and open science practices.

Open science is an initiative that is gaining momentum worldwide, and several countries are taking initiatives to promote it. These initiatives are aimed at making scientific research more accessible, transparent, and reproducible. The leaders of open science have implemented policies and strategies that support open access, open data, open source, and open peer review. As a result, scientific research is becoming more relevant and useful to society, and scientific discovery is accelerating.

Scientific Research Raises People From Poverty
Scientific Research Raises People From Poverty 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Scientific research has been instrumental in lifting people out of poverty, improving their quality of life, and helping them realize their full potential. Through innovative ideas, groundbreaking discoveries, and cutting-edge technologies, scientific research has transformed the world we live in, making it a better place to live for all.

One of the most significant contributions of scientific research to poverty reduction has been in the field of agriculture. Modern agricultural techniques have increased crop yields, reduced soil degradation, and improved the quality of crops, resulting in higher incomes for farmers and improved food security for communities. Advances in agricultural science have enabled farmers to grow crops in previously barren areas, leading to increased production and income.

Medical research has also played a vital role in reducing poverty, improving people’s health and well-being. Through the development of vaccines and medicines, scientists have helped to prevent and treat diseases that have historically plagued impoverished communities. Medical research has also led to the discovery of new treatments for chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease, which disproportionately affect low-income communities.

In addition to agriculture and medicine, scientific research has also contributed to poverty reduction through the development of renewable energy technologies. Access to affordable and reliable energy is critical for economic development, and renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power have the potential to provide clean and sustainable energy to millions of people around the world. Scientific research has helped to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of these technologies, making them more accessible to low-income communities.

Furthermore, scientific research has also contributed to poverty reduction through the development of innovative solutions to social problems. For example, researchers have developed low-cost water filtration systems, which have helped to provide clean drinking water to communities in developing countries. Similarly, advances in information technology have enabled low-income communities to access educational resources and job opportunities, helping to break the cycle of poverty and improve their quality of life.

Scientific research has been instrumental in raising people out of poverty and improving their lives. Through innovative ideas, groundbreaking discoveries, and cutting-edge technologies, scientists have transformed the world we live in, making it a better place for all. As we continue to face complex challenges, such as climate change, inequality, and global health crises, scientific research will continue to play a critical role in addressing these issues and improving the lives of people around the world.

Improving Research Assessment
Improving Research Assessment 1 1 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The importance of research in advancing knowledge and understanding in various fields cannot be overemphasized. However, the process of assessing research quality and disseminating research findings to the wider public remains a challenge. In recent years, there has been a growing call for improving research assessment and providing more accessible access to free knowledge. This article discusses some strategies that can be adopted to achieve these objectives.

One of the most significant challenges in research assessment is the overreliance on quantitative metrics such as journal impact factor, citation counts, and h-index. While these metrics can be useful indicators of research quality, they are often used as the sole criterion for evaluating researchers and their work. This approach is flawed because it fails to take into account other important factors such as the impact of research on society, interdisciplinary collaborations, and the engagement of researchers with the wider public. To improve research assessment, a more holistic approach that considers multiple metrics and qualitative indicators should be adopted.

One possible solution is the adoption of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), which was developed in 2012 by a group of editors and publishers of scholarly journals and scientific societies. DORA emphasizes the need to evaluate research on its own merits rather than relying on journal-based metrics. It also encourages the use of a range of indicators, such as the societal impact of research, the quality of publications, and the development of new methods and tools.

Another critical aspect of improving research assessment is to ensure that research findings are more widely available to the public. Currently, many research articles are published in journals that are behind paywalls, making them inaccessible to the general public. This limits the dissemination of research findings and restricts the potential impact of research on society.

To address this issue, open access publishing can be adopted. Open access publishing allows anyone to access research articles without the need for a subscription or payment. This approach can be achieved through two main models: the green model and the gold model. The green model involves authors depositing their pre-print or post-print versions of the article in a public repository or institutional repository, while the gold model involves authors publishing their work in open access journals.

Another way to increase the accessibility of research findings is through the use of preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv. Preprint servers allow researchers to share their research findings before they are peer-reviewed and published in a journal. This approach allows for rapid dissemination of research findings and facilitates collaboration among researchers. However, it is important to note that preprints should not be seen as a substitute for peer-reviewed publications.

Lastly, improving research assessment and providing more accessible access to free knowledge is essential for advancing knowledge and understanding in various fields. A more holistic approach to research assessment that considers multiple metrics and qualitative indicators should be adopted. Additionally, open access publishing and the use of preprint servers can increase the accessibility of research findings to the wider public. These strategies will help to ensure that research findings have a greater impact on society and contribute to the advancement of knowledge.

Impact of Open Data and Free Knowledge
Impact of Open Data and Free Knowledge 683 1024 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

The advent of the digital age has brought about many changes in the way we live our lives, from the way we communicate to the way we access information. One of the most significant changes has been the emergence of open knowledge and open data. These concepts refer to the idea that information and knowledge should be freely available to all, without restrictions or limitations. The impact of open knowledge and open data has been felt in many areas of society, but perhaps nowhere more so than in the lives of those who were previously lacking access to it.

One of the most notable changes that open knowledge and open data have brought about is increased transparency in government and public institutions. In the past, it was often difficult for citizens to access information about government activities, budgets, and decision-making processes. However, with the advent of open data initiatives, governments and public institutions are now required to make this information freely available to the public. This has led to increased transparency, accountability, and trust in government, which has had a positive impact on the lives of citizens.

Another area where open knowledge and open data have made a notable difference is in healthcare. Access to medical information and research has traditionally been restricted to those with the means to pay for it, leaving many without access to the latest treatments and medical breakthroughs. However, with the advent of open access journals and medical research databases, this information is now freely available to all. This has led to improved patient outcomes, as doctors and patients can access the latest research and treatments, regardless of their financial circumstances.

In the field of education, open knowledge and open data have also made a significant impact. In the past, access to educational resources was often restricted to those who could afford to pay for it. However, with the advent of open educational resources (OERs), educational materials are now freely available to all. This has had a significant impact on developing countries, where access to education has traditionally been limited. OERs have allowed individuals to access educational materials that they would not otherwise have been able to afford, leading to improved educational outcomes and increased opportunities.

Finally, open knowledge and open data have also had a significant impact on innovation and entrepreneurship. In the past, access to information and knowledge was often restricted to those who had the means to pay for it, limiting the opportunities for innovation and entrepreneurship. However, with the advent of open knowledge and open data initiatives, this information is now freely available to all. This has led to increased innovation, as entrepreneurs and innovators can access the latest research and data, regardless of their financial circumstances.

Hence, the emergence of open knowledge and open data has had a significant impact on the lives of those who were previously lacking access to it. From increased transparency in government and public institutions to improved healthcare outcomes and increased educational opportunities, the impact of open knowledge and open data has been far-reaching and transformative. As we continue to move forward into the digital age, it is clear that these concepts will play an increasingly important role in shaping our society and improving the lives of individuals around the world.

20 key organisations and networks and a list of over 100 experts identified in the OPUS WP1
20 key organisations and networks and a list of over 100 experts identified in the OPUS WP1 1024 850 Open and Universal Science (OPUS) Project

Our team made a lot of progress on the work package one (WP1) of the OPUS project State-of-the-art on existing literature and initiatives for Open Science.

A full analysis of the H2020 work programmes from SWAFS, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, Research Infrastructure, Spreading Excellence and Widening Participation, relevant to Open Science has been made.

Our team members were really busy in the last three months: they have reviewed 35 projects, taking half through to the second phase of a more in-depth review. They have identified about 20 key organisations and networks and a list of over 100 experts, with whom our team wants to involve throughout the project.

Also, the OPUS team is wading through the literature on topics like gender equality and open science, precarity and open science, industry and open science…

This part of the OPUS activities (WP1) is the foundation for future work packages, so looking forward to lots of key inputs.

About Work Package One (WP1)

OPUS WP1 team led by RESOLVO conducts (and will later update) state-of-the-art on initiatives and literature to reform research(er) assessment and incentivise and reward Open Science, which will include a stakeholder engagement plan identifying key stakeholders to support the stakeholder input and validation sessions in #WP2 – Interventions for Open Science (Rewards and Incentives for Researchers) and #WP3 – Indicators and Metrics for Open Science (Rewards and incentives for Researchers), as well as gauging the level of (mis)trust in Open Science in the research community.

The initiatives includes key (1) projects, (2) experts and organisations, (3) networks and schemes.

The literature reviews focuses on (1) research(er) assessment, (2) incentives and rewards, (3) precarity of research careers, (4) gender equality, (5) industry practices.

About OPUS project

The OPUS project is an EU-funded project implemented by an eighteen-organisations consortium led by The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN). The Open and Universal Science (OPUS) project develops coordination and support measures to reform the assessment of research and researchers at Research Performing Organisations (RPOs) and Research Funding Organisations (RFOs) towards a system that incentivises and rewards researchers to take up Open Science practices.

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